YAP Proposal #190: Aquaculture and river bank farming (Deepika Adhikari, Nepal)

AdhikaryDeepika_Saili maya gongba

“Desperate times calls for desperate measures.” This is what I have seen and experienced and this has also motivated me to do this project.

I am Deepika Adhikari. I am 27 years old and hold a Master’s degree in Horticulture. I have five years of experience working with the farmers of the hills as well as the Terai region of Nepal. I have technically supported the implementation of riverbed farming for the highly flood affected, landless and land poor farmers of three western Terai districts of Nepal.

The latter project dealt with utilization of unused riverbeds and degraded lands to grow fruits and vegetables, thereby improving the income and food security of these farmers. I realized that land degradation is often a fundamental aspect of rural poverty, severely impacting the ability of subsistence farmers to grow food, irrigate their crops and get decent yields.

Estimated annual soil erosion in Nepal is 9.699 million hectares (MoEST, 2006). This high level of erosion is leading to reduced soil fertility and enormous tracts degraded land. Not only does it undermine the food security of poor farmers but also distorts the entire livelihood pattern of a community.

Handikhola Village Development Committee, Ward no – 4 of Makwanpur district, located in the foothills of the Chure (Siwalik) range in Nepal is one such area that is  unsuitable for conventional cultivation. It faces regular land degradation due to riverbank cutting, soil erosion and deforestation which has damaged the agricultural land and reduced soil fertility.

The ‘Tamangs,’ a marginalized ethnic community, are the main inhabitants of this village. Due to limited cultivable land, the community is involved in agriculture for six months only. For the rest of the year they are involved in cheap labour to maintain their livelihood.

Unrestrained use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers by the farmers in order to get high production from the limited land that they have has further added to soil infertility.  Food insecurity looms in the community as weather variances and disasters swallow up cultivable land. But those who suffer the most are the women.

The women are responsible for ensuring the food security of their families and the lack of cultivable land negatively impacts food security by increasing food shortage, decreasing purchasing power, increasing migration of male members and increasing disease incidence due to intake of low quality food.

My project is aimed at supporting women farmers in developing five model demonstration plots that will showcase improved, climate-smart income generation and riverbank protection technology.

Two rivulets, namely the Thado Khola and Bhundrung Khola originating in Chure (Siwaliks), drain the micro-watershed of Handikhola.

The watershed is seasonal in nature and the majority of water flow exists only during the monsoon (mid-June to October). The monsoon rain as well as the flowing rivulets percolate into the Bhabar, which is then forced to the surface through capillary action when it reaches the finer alluvial layers. It is then converted into a zone of springs and marshes along the river corridor of the village.

These attributes make the area very suitable for aquaculture. Ponds with large dykes will be constructed along the river corridor that will allow cultivation of fish like Grass Carp and Tilapia. The dykes can also be used to grow fruits and vegetables.

Multi-purpose grasses like Napier, broomgrass and bamboo will be planted in the adjacent degraded land. This will serve as feed for the fish and will also control soil erosion.

Vegetable crops like cucumber, string beans, onions, bitter gourd, bottle gourd and pumpkin, along with fruits like banana, watermelon, muskmelon, pineapple and papaya, can be planted along the dykes. This will improve the adaptive capacity of the farmers to climate change by improving household food security, generating income and also preventing the erosion of riverbanks and the loss of agricultural land.

Two women’s groups, ‘Srijanshil’ and ‘Ujjwal,’ consisting of 50 members each, have already been formed. The concept has been delivered to these women farmers and an initial pilot has been conducted with the help of an NGO called Institute of Sustainable Agriculture Nepal (INSAN).

Some of the major costs for undertaking this project have already been carried out, such as construction  of ponds and providing technical training on aquaculture and riverbed farming to the farmers. Farmers have constructed ponds in their private degraded lands. On the dykes, they grew long bean, black bean, soy bean and banana. This project has helped women farmers to turn into entrepreneurs.

However, now there is no more help even though the farmers really love the concept. Developing at least five of them into model demonstration plots will involve further improvements like adding more suitable horticultural crops and other aquatic plants in the pond, components like composting, biopesticide preparation and market linkage to further improve women’s access to agriculture technology.

The latter will also facilitate the project’s replication in the community and the adjacent villages. These demonstration plots will serve as a training ground for all the farmers in the region.

Based on interactions and discussion with the community, I intend to select the five best women agriprenuers to cooperate in building a demonstration plot. They will be given training on aquaculture and vegetable farming at regular intervals and will also be encouraged to grow new species of vegetables and fruits on the dykes. Training on composting technology and biopesticide preparation will also be provided.

These women agriprenuers will then become technical resource persons at the community level and will be linked with the local government’s Agriculture, Forest and Environment Committee and Agriculture Service Centres to achieve self-replication of the project at the local level.

Stakeholder workshops and exposure visits will be organized for the involved stakeholders, local government (DDC, municipality and VDC), District Agriculture Development Office, District Soil Conservation Office and District Forest Office, which can ensure the integration of this technology into their annual/periodic plans.

Training will be provided on post-harvest handling and market linkages, and grants will be provided to carry out local market assessment and to prepare business plans.

For me, this project will be an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the project in reaching women to become agriprenuers and to be economically and socially empowered. At the same time I will be able to provide my technical know-how on riverbed farming technology to the farmers.

This grant of $5000 will be used for capacity building ($2000), identifying and providing improved vegetable and fruit seeds that can be grown on degraded land and other inputs ($1000), a stakeholder workshop and  exposure visit  ($800), publication ($800) and strengthening market linkages through a local market assessment and business plan ($400).
Blogpost and picture submitted by Deepika Adhikari (Nepal) – adhikari.468[at]gmail.com

The content, structure and grammar is at the discretion of the author only.


This post is published as proposal #190 of “YAP” – our “Youth Agripreneur Project”.

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158 thoughts on “YAP Proposal #190: Aquaculture and river bank farming (Deepika Adhikari, Nepal)

  1. This project of” River Bank farming “would be really helpful for the people of teria region of Nepal ….. It is so motivational and interesting proposal.

  2. This proposal clearly defines the water potential of chure-bhabhar region of Nepal and it’s potential for aquaculture and river bed/bank farming. I had visited the river bed farming site of rupandehi district of western Nepal this summer and was quite enthusiastic to see how this technology directly contributes to livelihood improvement. Good luck to your project, looking forward to see you implement your innovation.

  3. This is a very innovative and useful idea for rural people of Nepal. This seems very simple and effective measure to empower local people.

  4. I liked the proposal. It tends to address the basic needs of the people and the region. I would love to see little more exploration/description on the market, especially that of fish, example, Birganj, or Kathmandu. Good luck ahead.

    1. Thank you dipesh dai… I absolutely agree with you on this…market assessment both at the local and national level needs to be carried out to make the project more successful…It will be an integral part of my project.

  5. Its a very good project which will enhance the quality of agriculture through empowering the selected women. I strongly support this proposal and wish Deepika the very best.

  6. I understand that a woman knows better the plight of a fellow woman. Venturing into the life of a vulnerable section of a society and bringing smiles in their face is indeed a challenge immeasurable.I am confident this project can bring smiles to thousands of poor, and landless through the riverbed farming. Wishing you.all the best.

    1. Thank you Laba ji.. I will be the focal person for this project and each demonstration plot will be monitored.

  7. Indeed a very innovative, and good proposal for the betterment of society, poor and needy people. Great thought, wish you all the luck for the project.

  8. Indeed a very innovative, and good proposal for the betterment of society, poor and needy people. Great work, wish you all the luck for the project.

  9. Very nice self-sustaining approach as well as on the road to set an example especially for those who are seeking foreign employment
    ..

  10. Very nice self-sustaining approach especially setting up an example to give second thought for those seeking foreign employment.

  11. Deepika, you are one of the hard working, courageous, daring, smart and intelligent lady, as far I know. Thank you so much for revealing some of your ideas foist in your project intended with livelihood enhancement of river bed women farmers. Women plays an important role in food security of family. If landless and jobless women are able to utilize marginalized land like riverbed and generate extra source of income, development is impending. I salute your effort. Utilization of river bed for the production of fruits, vegetables and fish can be a milestone in import substitution of the country. Good quality is mandatory for fetching higher price in market. If you work hard in improving quality of crops along with market channeling, outcome of your work will be more evident.

    1. Thank you Biren for your encouraging comments.Iam humbled. In our country there are very less infrastructure to support small scale farming and small farmers find it difficult to find established markets.Though a small activity of market assessment and bussiness plan will be carried out in the project, I believe it will greatly help the project to succeed financially…

  12. I agree to your idea. I also was interested to know how the under-used and degraded lands of chure and bhabhar areas could be used effectively. Thanks for your idea and i am really looking forward to your project.

  13. Its really interesting and impotant to conserve riverbeds as well as source of income generation for community around river banks. I have seen the river bed farming a successful step in many district of nepal. Wish you good luck with your work.

  14. Nice innovation…..I really liked the concept of diversified production, like grass, vegetables, fish farming, which builds the multiple livelihood options for local groups.

  15. Income generation is the one of the most important requirement for the livelihood enhancement of farmers. Women are important source of food security in the family. If the landless and jobless women are able to utilize the marginalized river bed for the production of fruits, vegetables and fishery, the development is not so far. Commercial production from river bed can be the milestone in import substitution of agriculture in the country. Quality of the product is important for fetching higher price in the market. If you are able to manage better quality of crops along with market channeling, outcomes of your work will be more evident.

  16. I see this project will not only help the entire community to abstain from cheap labour works when there is no work due to floods and erosion but also being a great upliftment of the women and provide them great training and they will pass on the ideas and skills on to their future generatiom.
    Infact this project aims for a long term over all development of the poor community leading to a rich farm lands and skilled farmers and workers.

  17. Simple but very nice concept for deprived community who have land but useless for agriculture production, this activities are not only demonstration innovative technology also support bio-diversity conservation ( Local fish and wild fruits , vegetable ) for their sustainable livelihood. Best of luck.

    1. Thank you Kiran sir for your comment.. Absolutely! These ponds will be a natural stock of local fish that comes from the individual rivers.

  18. Good project! This will not only improve the livelihood of the target groups but will also stop rural-urban migration, preventing population pressure and its negative impacts in the urban areas. Wish you all the best.

  19. Empowering women is the best and the least cost method for rural development in Nepal. Since agriculture is the major occupation and almost 70% of Nepalese population is engaged in agriculture activities, your idea of river bed/bank farming and aquaculture in areas that are abandoned and under-utilized opens a new window for involving local people and improving their life standard. Good luck.

  20. Yes! Indeed. This project is viable and felt needed while i was there as a trainer during the implementation of commercial organic vegetable production funded by GEF. Formed various farmers groups and one functional cooperative to market all their products. If this YEP project funded and implemented, the women farmers will be more benefited as author mention in her blog above. The area has no other means of income generation except best utilization of this riverbed of Handi Khola along the South to North.

    1. Thank you Malla sir! Building a living classroom (demonstration farm) is necessary. It will show them what works and will provide mechanism to transfer knowledge and since women represent the majority of small farmers they can provide valuable link among farmers to exchange ideas and technology.

      1. Yes, I agree with you. We / INSAN tried to do so with some of the key farmers but due to the short time period of the project, we could not do so. I am sure, some of the farmers in the area are really likely to be a model farm and we need to just keep them support at least for 3 years. Hope, this YEP project would be able to establish as you looking for. Best regards….

  21. Deepika Adhikari as we know her is a person of walk the talk and here in her proposed project I find her technical write ups sound and practicable. Once given a chance to implement, I am sure it will greatly enhance livelihood of targeted groups and beyound. On the other hand the greater cause towards which this project aims to achieve is remarkable …. I earnestly wish her success and I am sure her project will bring new rays of hope and life to thousands of people in Nepal…I am supporting her..please do support her friends

  22. Wow what an idea I will really work out in this project at our fish farm pond to gain some more porfit

  23. Our deep respect for the land and its harvest is the legacy of generations of farmers who put food on our tables, preserved our landscape, and inspired us with a powerful work ethic.

    Salute…To You….

  24. Okay, this proposal sucked big time. Donors better look for the one that really has potential to change people’s life through tech innovation and research, or do whatever it’s your money. But good luck lady, not impressed, period.

    1. I will really be happy to know your idea ,how you would treat the degraded land and the framers at that palce, as i believe this is the synergistic idea benefiting the farmers and the land as well.

    2. Dear Whatever, you are talking about for the high level research only, the studies on tech innovation and research will not be useful to the people who have to think about their food source every morning. The proposal actually does a very good job of reaching out to those people, making use of the already available resources, which will probably (of course I hope) make some differences in the people lives there.

  25. It is very interesting and innovative idea of improving local livelihoods and enhancing river ecosystem through utilizing river banks. Good luck to your work, looking forward to read more on it in the future.

  26. Exciting concept, Utilizing the sandy land for farming for income generation. It is really climate change impact adaptive technology if we aware the grower properly .. Keep it up
    YAP Proposal #10
    Himalaya Subedi

  27. Booming population where cultivable land is shrinking day by day and agriculture is in the backseat due to urbanisation and Industrial explosion. The Riverbank farming along with Aquaculture will be a boon to the local populace particularly women in the short run and in the long run this project will improve the economy of the Country. Wishing Deepika and her Project a Grand Success.

  28. Riverbed farming is really an activity by which resource poor people can make the best use of their valuable and underutilised family’s labour for income generation. While working in Sarlahi about 25 years ago, I had seen few landless people coming from India and practicing river-bed farming (growing vegetables) on the bank of Lakhandei river. They used to get land on some type of contract from local individual or VDC. This clearly indicates that the river-bed farming is profitable. In this case, Deepika, you are trying to integrate aquaculture with vegetables and fruits cultivation meaning larger income can be expected leading to poverty alleviation, food security and better nutrition, the important millennium goals.

    1. Yes Rijal Ji! The demonstration farm will centre around Permaculture principles and build the natural ecosystem.

  29. I always wondered how the unused and degraded lands could be used effectively, after reading your proposal I got an option to use your idea in my village as well. Thank you for the idea deepika and I wish you all the best.

  30. It’s a great concept in empowering women participation and support their livelihood whilst utilising available landscapes . Good luck with you initiative.

  31. Agriculture, forestry and soil. Your concept provides conservation measures to all these resources. Highly impressed.

  32. It is up to the mark!
    Concept is superb and good proposal but link some pictures with this proposal, i mean the pictures related to your concept which highlights and make your concept more clear to the readers or viewers.

    1. Thank you Surya ji! Yes pictures of the Bhabar could have defined the project area.. I will definitely remember this if I pass this initial screening.

  33. Excellent idea Deepika – worth utilizing the abandoned land for the income of poor and squatters – I feel it certainly gives bases of livelihoods for many poor and squatters – I wish you a very good luck with your splendid idea…

  34. I really appreciate the new concept in content of Nepal. This idea will generate various opportunity to villagers.

  35. Booming population where cultivable land is shrinking day by day and agriculture is in the backseat due to rapid urbanisation. The Riverbank farming along with Aquaculture will be a boon to the local populace particularly women in the short run and in the long run this project will also improve the economy of the Country Wishing Deepika and her Project a Grand Success ,

  36. What a great ideology! This in no doubt will benefit villagers! Our country needs mind like yours to bring up ideas like this to boost up our economy! Make it happen! We support u!!

  37. Very nice concept, I don’t come from agricultural background however I beliew home grown innovative ideas such as yours will be more sustainable for the long run,

    1. Thank you Birat Ji.. There is tremendous power in small scale farmers and according to FAO 70 percent of the food we consume globally comes from small farmers..

  38. I appreciate this idea of farming. Certainly, it’s adoption will play major role in food security, improving soil condition and capacity development of farmers. Wishing all the best for innovative lady…..

  39. Nepal is agriculture based country and dependent highly on the rainfall for the irrigation purposes so farmers of Nepal are always waiting for this type innovative ideas to enhance their livelihood via agricultural based activity. This concept seems beneficial for the rural farmers that will be easily adaptable and replicable in various part of the country. So, this project needs to be funded and implemented in the proposed area of the Terai region.

  40. There is a great need of advocacy requirement in Nepal for ameliorating the standards in agriculture sector. The description of the project seems to provide one of the solutions for the issues we are facing today regarding food crisis. Riverbed farming is a good concept, since we get to use the fertile land throughout the year. I hope to see impacts in agriculture field in Nepal by implementing these concepts in coming future. Best of luck.

  41. There is a great need of advocacy requirement in Nepal for ameliorating the standards in agriculture sector. The description of the project seems to provide one of the solutions for the issues we are facing today regarding food crisis. Riverbed farming is a good concept, since we get to use the fertile land throughout the year. I hope to see good impacts in the field of agriculture in Nepal by implementing these concepts. Best of luck.

  42. Mostly ultra poor people of Nepal are living in riverside and soil erosion area. This kinds of innovative project surely can help to upgrade poor people living standard and preserve soil erosion ,so, this kinds of innovative project need to expand another such kinds of area also.

  43. Supporting women farmers through easy technology will not only benefit them economically but will also help them to achieve respect in their society…

  44. Good idea for the improvement of livelihood of the people at rural areas.
    Government should think about it and make more studies on it n implement it .good work
    Keep it up .

  45. I really appreciate the idea and hope it would work as a baseline approach to livelihood improvement via improved agricultural practices…

  46. Very innovative & inspiring project that would surely aid the local people & environment. keep up your hard work. Wish you all the very best.

  47. Very innovative and inspiring project, that would surely aid the people and environment . Keep up the hard work and wish you all the best

  48. Very innovative & inspiring project. That would surely aid the people and environment. Keep up your hard work. wWsh you all the very best.

  49. A very innovative and inspiring project that would surely be a great aid to the people and environment. Keep up your hard work and wish you all the best!

  50. Modest yet very effective and pioneering concept. This proposal surely addresses the food security issue in the region and also the women empowerment in todays context. Keep going. Good luck !!!

  51. Modest yet very effective and pioneering concept. This proposal surely addresses the food security issue in the region and also the women empowerment in today’s context. Keep going. Good luck !!!

  52. A very innovative and inspiring project that would surely be a great aid to the people and environment. Keep up your hard work. Wish you all the very best.

  53. It is indeed a very innovative and motivational project for the rural people of Nepal.I strongly support the project you hv undertaken wish you all the best.

  54. This is for the development of agricultural as well as for the women of underdeveloped country…. Keep up the good job Madem …

  55. Wow this is absolutely amazing! I showed this to my history teacher he was so amazed and he decided to share some interesting facts with the class and he also said this is just wow it’s very inspiring!

  56. This is so inspiring deepika diju, i shared this blog with my history teacher and he was so amazed and decided to share some facts with the class!!

  57. First of, Hats off for this innovative project idea. I wish to see this project come to life and bring positive results. Loves this idea for two mai reasons:
    1. Empowerment of women of low income groups
    2. Optimum usage of the land( river banks/ beds ) which has been under utilised for productive proposes.
    Good luck dear Deepika Adhikari for your project.

  58. First of, hats off for the brilliant project idea. I loved this project for two main reasons:
    1. Empowerment of women of the low income group
    2. Optimum utilisation of the land areas which are other wise not used for productive purpose.
    Wishing deepika ji the best for the successful initialization and sustainance of this wonderful idea.

  59. Wonderful concept to save our enviroment as well as to support farmer’s livlihood..

    This concept will be more fruitful if it could apply in kathmandu…like land near by bagamati river

  60. Women farmers should have the same access to technology and resources as men…I believe this proposal aims at that and also the poor households will have steady supply of nutritious food…
    Simple but nice technology …good luck

  61. Very relevant issues and the proposal seems well-thought-out. Hope to hear updates on your progress soon

  62. This is a great help to the people of the community and a huge step towards sustainability and protection of our soil which is one of the most important natural resources. As an environmental science student, I greatly appreciate the project.

  63. An effective approach in uplifting the living standard of the people living in those area…keep it up!!!

  64. nice innovation. i really liked the way you linked degraded land rehabilitation with livelihood. moreover targeting women as the focal implementer makes your idea more practical. keep it up and all the best.

  65. thank you for this splendid idea. i am extremely impressed by your innovative idea of improving the life standard of rural community of nepal. your approach seems participatory and very practical. all the best.

  66. Nice innovative & practical way to address farmer’s issues.I definitely believe it will make ground level impact.

  67. A good initiative with a cause. The proposal has SMART objective and addresses the requirement of economic empowerment of rural people especially the women who are left behind.

  68. Very interestting and very useful. I hope you will manage to get the grant and address the problem through activities you have listed. Wish you luck.

  69. This project of” River Bank farming “would be really helpful for the people of teria region of Nepal ….. It is so motivational and interesting proposal.

  70. I really like your concept of women empowerment in a poor condition. I hope you will get the project and be able to manage it well. Wish you all the best Deepika.

  71. I really like the concept of women empowerment in a poor condition. I hope you will get the project and be able to manage it well. I wish you all the best Deepika.

  72. Sounds great! Empowering underprivileged poor women by any means is a very progressive idea. Hope your project will contribute in making their life a little better. I am confident that you willl enrich those selected few women with your skills and knowledge re: aquafarming and eventally make them self sustaining. Very good intent to help the needy. Good luck dear! May you success in your endeavours!

  73. A good initiative to help uplift the women folks as well as to bring about good concept of farming to the community as a whole..All the best dear..

  74. A very good concept and i especially like the introduction of organic farming using biopesticides . high time for rural farmers to understand the need to go organic. Best wishes

  75. Very good concept. farmers need to understand the importance of going organic, including the benefits, for sustainibility. a good location to introduce the concept too. Best wishes

  76. Deepika
    Congratulations for the good work you are doing

    Its a wonderful project. I found it is a smart idea of using wasteland ( Riverbed) for cultivation of fruit and vegetables. This project also seems to address the gender inequality in the society by capacity building of women in technical aspects of agriculture and also helping them to find the space in the society as economic and social change agent. I am sure this project will bring change in the life of landless poor women.

    BEST OF LUCK

  77. Deepika

    Congratulations for the good work you are doing for rural poor

    I found this project innovative and interesting. I think its a great idea for landless women to use wasteland ( Riverbed) for vegetable and fruit production. I also think involvement of women in the project will surely build confidence of women as a economic contributor in the family. Training women farmers and also helping them to find a space as a resource person in the society will further help them to be active part of the aspired change. I firmly believe these poor women can bring change in their life by acquiring knowledge and skill around economic activity like agriculture. Production of different vegetable may also add to nutritional aspect. I believe this project will surely change the life of rural poor and marginal people of the village who are struggling with poverty and vulnerability in their life.

    Keep your good work going

    Best of luck

  78. Deepika

    Congratulations for the good work you are doing for poor

    I found this project innovative and interesting. I think its a great idea for landless women to use wasteland ( Riverbed) for vegetable and fruit production. I also think involvement of women in the project will surely build confidence of women as a economic contributor in the family. Training women farmers and also helping them to find a space as a resource person in the society will further help them to be active part of the aspired change. I firmly believe these poor women can bring change in their life by acquiring knowledge and skill around economic activity like agriculture. Production of different vegetable may also add to nutritional aspect. I believe this project will surely change the life of rural poor and marginal people of the village who are struggling with poverty and vulnerability in their life.

    Keep your good work going

    Best of luck

  79. This project will surely raise the livelihood of the common mass. Empowerment of women is surely a good way to begin with. Call the best for your project.

  80. There are several untapped potential in Nepal. Appreciate your idea Deepika Jee. Best of luck for implementation of your idea.

  81. I’m very impressed by your idea of utilizing the degraded lands into a livelihood supporting agroforestry system. I think your concept is very executable and will certainly be a wide option to implement in a case of such degraded lands. I wish you all the best ☺

  82. Very interesting concept , implementation model as well as target people. I think its an innovative idea and hoping implementable with good outputs. Local and indigenous knowledge with science produces some facts that can be documented for research paper. Your work is demanding audience attention and outsourcing as it is a very instructive concept linking nature and future of people of Churia. Extension of this innovation is indeed necessary to the similar area.
    Utsav ko pani input cha jasto cha so…..monitoring and documentation of the outputs through effective monitoring system…..ma dhyan dinu paryo……Wish you all the best….

    1. Your comments regarding the importance of indigenous knowledge is very much relevant in the context of this project work. Surely, this project will prove to be of utmost utility if extended to other areas too.

  83. Good approach for the Farming and definitely will open new horizons for the livelihood of local people. Best of luck for the project.

  84. Very clear and workable concept. Implementation of climate-smart ideas such as yours will make agriculture/aquaculture more sustainable. Incorporation of nitrogen fixing crops like soy beans is a win-win idea and ought to benefit the farmers and the environment.

  85. Sounds like a well thought-through concept! I like the component of women being empowered. I wish you and the participants all the best and a great success!

  86. There should not be any think twice whenever it comes to utilisation of natural resources which in turn will reward the local communities as well as whole country. On the other hand, such concept will bounce back the well known theory ” Nepal is an agricultural country” into practical grounds and roll it to the peak. Good luck for your step Deepika. Keep it up.

  87. This project is very promising as it not only focusses on the economic upliftment of the local Tamang community but also on the empowerment of the rural women which is vital for any type of sustainable development and marginalise land-use and land degradation through carving an alternative land-use method and source of income for the local people. My best wishes for the success of this project.

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